Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is currently under investigation for its ability to restore function following spinal cord injury and aid in addressing basic investigations of the spinal cord in feline and murine (rat) models. In this report we describe the procedures for fabricating and implanting intraspinal microwires, with special emphasis on the rat model. We also report our results on targeting success and long-term stability and functionality of the implants.
Hybrid activation (HA), patterned electrical stimulation (ES) superimposed on attempted voluntary movement in close synchrony, can augment muscle force output. It has been proposed for limb function restoration and neuromodulation.